Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Revolutions - Causes and Types


A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively short period of time. 
There are several kinds of revolution:
Political revolutions (American Revolution)
Great revolutions which are sudden and violent and seek not only to establish a new political system but to transform an entire society (French and Russian Revolutions)
Social revolutions which are slow but sweeping transformations of the entire society that take several generations to bring about (Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions)

There are a number of things that can cause the kind of unrest that leads to revolution: poverty and a lack of power amongst the masses, d
iscontent with the way things are and a desire to create change, and a
 feeling of personal powerlessness 

Political Revolution (American Revolution)

Britain imposed a series of arbitrary taxes on the colonists.
The colonists had no vote in the British parliamentary system so they had no recourse when they were unhappy – they felt powerless.
When the British dissolved local governments and sent troops, the colonists created their own militia to fight for their rights.  Fighting broke out in 1775.

Great Revolution (French Revolution)

The French Revolution (1789-1799) brought the end of the monarchy in just three years. These are the causes:
There was widespread famine, malnutrition, disease and death amongst the peasantry.
France was nearly bankrupt for two reasons – Louis XV had involved France directly in many wars and France had provided the Americans with support for their own Revolutionary War.
France had lost many of its military battles and did not provide services for its veterans.
The nobility continued to openly live lives of conspicuous consumption.
The Catholic church began to tax crops.
The cost of bread rose astronomically and many people were unemployed.
The peasant class was angry and felt powerless to change things in a peaceful way.
The French Revolution did not just change the political situation in the country – it brought a complete political and social change including attitudes towards the peasantry and the role of women.  The cry of the French Revolution was Liberté, égalité, fraternité.  This represented a shocking (for the nobility) change in philosophy and attitude.

Social Revolution (Industrial Revolution)

The Industrial Revolution actually began with the Agricultural Revolution.  Both the Industrial and Agricultural Revolutions happened without war but we cannot say without bloodshed.  These revolutions were spurred on by discoveries made by explorers and scientists.  The changes began in Britain but spread throughout the world and the scientific and social changes have ramifications still today.

The Loyalists

Many of the Loyalists who went to Quebec travelled by land.  This map shows the major routes they used.  Most of them arrived between 1776 & 1785.  The Loyalists who went to Nova Scotia travelled by sea.

The Loyalists

The Loyalists were the people living in the Thirteen Colonies who remained loyal to Britain during the American Revolution (1775-1783).  Many of their families had lived in the colonies for generations, while others were relatively recent immigrants from England or other European countries.  During and after the Revolutionary War, they left the United States rather than become American citizens.  Thousands of them chose to settle in Canada.

Many families were harassed, driven from their homes, fined, jailed and some were even killed since they were viewed as traitors by the American rebels.  They fled the Thirteen Colonies to find safety and a new life in other British Territories.  Other Loyalists were influenced to come to British North America (Canada) by the offer of free land for new farms.
The Loyalists came from many different backgrounds.  There were poor and rich Loyalists, and people from towns as well as rural areas.  Businessmen, farmers, soldiers, escaped slave and slave owners; men, women, and children left in large numbers.  Many of them had British ancestry and were loyal to the king.  But some people  from other cultures feared that if they stayed in the United States they would be forced to give up their religions and customs - they thought that the British Government would be more inclined to protect their way of life.  Some of these were First Nations who had fought as Loyalists alongside the British troops.  They feared that American settlers would take over their lands.  When the British lost the war in the Thirteen Colonies, many of the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy moved into Canada for British protection and lands.


Two main groups of Loyalists came to Canada: the first waves came during the actual fighting of the American Revolution, followed by a later wave that fled north after the British lost the Revolutionary War.  At first, most settled in the Maritime region, Quebec City, and Montreal.  In total, more than 30,000 Loyalist refugees arrived in Nova Scotia in the early 1780s resulting in the formation of a new colony, New Brunswick, in 1784.   The Loyalists quickly became the majority of the population in the Maritime region, and their needs and political demands overshadowed those of the original inhabitants.

The governor of Quebec at the time feared that if large numbers of English-speaking Protestants (the Loyalists) settled amongst the French-speaking Catholics of the colony of Quebec, trouble would follow.  The Loyalist refugees were therefore encouraged to head further west into the then-unsettled regions near Lakes Ontario and Erie.  Some continued to settle in the Eastern townships of Quebec and around Montreal and Quebec City, but most took up the offer of large tracts of free land "out west".  By 1784 at least  5000 had travelled to the western region.  The population grew rapidly and in 1791 two colonies were created.  Lower Canada (what is now Quebec) was predominantly populated with French-speaking Catholics.  Upper Canada (now Ontario) was created to better represent the needs of its mainly English-speaking inhabitants.  Almost 2000 Six Nations refugees also settled near the Great Lakes.

To encourage the Loyalists to open new areas of settlement, the government offered each family or individual a piece of land (approximately 80 hectares) and farming supplies to start their new life in British North America.


It is not known exactly how many Loyalists came to Canada but the best estimates suggest that about 40,000 people came north in the 1770s and 1780s.  New colonies and governments were created as a result of their arrival.  The settlers in rural areas cleared the lands and established farms and towns that later grew into large cities in a relatively short time.  New businesses spring up and the trades and industries flourished, attracting  even more settlers.  The British systems of individual land ownership and grid surveys were introduced to give registered title to the farmlands settled by the Loyalists.

The Loyalists and their descendants also changed the ethnic makeup of Canada.  Before their arrival, the population had been mainly French-speaking Catholics.  They brought with them traditional British values on politics, religion, education, and the structure of society - some of these values would pave the way for conflict between the French and the English for many years to follow.  The leaders at the time also believed that the Loyalists would help protect the British colonies from any future threats of American invasion or expansion.

Sources: The Canadian Encyclopedia & Canada Revisited (1992)

Compiled by Judith Powell (2003)

1.  Who were the Loyalists?
2. Why did they leave the Thirteen Colonies?
3. Give two reasons why some of the non-British people decided to leave?
4. Name the two regions of Canada where most of the Loyalists settled.
5. What were the Loyalists promised by the government?
6. What new colonies were created as a result of the Loyalist migration?
7. How many Loyalists in total came to Canada?
8. Name at least five results of the Loyalists settling in Canada.
9. Now that you know the results of the Loyalist immigration into Canada, write a paragraph describing what you think Canada might be like in 200 years from now, taking into consideration the quantity and type of immigration we see today.

Tuesday, September 21, 2010


Part of your immigration project is to find at least one article on eLibrary.  To get to eLibrary:
  • go to the Stelly's webpage at stellys.sd63.bc.ca
  • select "Resources" then pick "Library"
  • click on Search for "E-Articles"
  • if you are using this at home the login and password are both stellys - if you are using this at school, you should go directly in
  • click on eLibrary
  • search for magazine and newspaper articles
Reference List (AKA Bibliography)
If you are using an article from eLibrary, you can click on the button that says "citation" and it will give you your bibliography information in the proper format.  If you are using a website or any other information that is not from eLibrary you can use the Citation Machine to put your bibliography information in the proper format.  To use Citation Machine, do the following:
  • go to the Stelly's webpage at stellys.sd63.bc.ca
  • select "Resources" then pick "Library"
  • scroll down and click on "Citation Machine"
  • click on the MLA button
  • choose the correct format, i.e. Print - Journal Article, or Nonprint - Web Document
  • Fill in all the information you have and click submit
  • copy and paste your citation into your reference list

    Monday, September 20, 2010

    Immigration to Canada - Upsides and Downsides Part II

    Immigration to Canada – Upside
    • Safety
    • Normal childhood
    • Reuniting families
    • Opportunities for education
    • Community and support
    • Welcomed regardless of race/religion/colour
    • Job opportunities
    • Low crime rate
    • Rated #1 country to live in by the United Nations
    • Health care
    • Employment insurance
    • Canada pension
    • Family allowance
    • Long life expectancy
    • Good future for children

    Immigration to Canada – Downside
    • Canada does not recognize many degrees, diplomas and certificates from other countries
    • While there are job opportunities, many immigrants have to take jobs that are much below their abilities
    • Immigrants don’t necessarily have credit ratings and can’t therefore get loans for cars or houses
    • Some immigrants feel that their accents cause employers to think twice about hiring them
    • Often can’t afford or are unable to return to their country of birth
    • Sometimes tears families apart
    • Immigration is arduous, difficult, complicated and costly
    • Sometimes immigrants can’t live where they want – for economic reasons they may have to live elsewhere
    • Adjustment to weather can be difficult

    Sunday, September 19, 2010

    Immigration - Upsides and Downsides

    Immigration: Dream or nightmare?

    Opinions about immigrating to Canada are as numerous as there are immigrants.  Some people come here and have wonderful experiences and others are completely disappointed and even end up returning to their country of birth.  Most people, however, have experiences that lie somewhere in the middle.  These articles and YouTube clips give both perspectives.  

    Immigration Project:
    You have two choices for this project.  

    1. You will create an advertisement either encouraging or discouraging possible immigrants to Canada.  You must support your arguments with valid reasons.  You must include information about Canadians and Canadian identity.  You may do this in whichever media you like: print (poster, magazine ad, mock-up for a billboard, etc.), electronic (webpage, powerpoint, etc.), film, radio, podcast.  
    2. You will create a "documentary" about an immigrant coming to Canada.  You must find information about other immigrants who have had similar experiences before you can include it in your "documentary".   You must include information about Canadians and Canadian identity.  You may do this as a film, radio show, podcast, powerpoint or as a magazine article.  
    You may do this individually, in partners, or in groups of no more than four.  Keep in mind, however, that the larger the group, the more I will expect from you.  In doing your research for this assignment, you may use any valid webpage you find on the Internet but you MUST also use at least one resource from eLibrary.  For your project to be complete, you must hand in the following things.
    1. Your notes in Cornell format.   30%
    2. Your reference list showing where your information came from and written in MLA format.  25%
    3. Your final project.   30%
    4. Your self evaluation.   15%
    This project is due on Tuesday, September 28th.

    Friday, September 17, 2010

    The first of these videos is a satirical look at what how many people view what makes someone Canadian.  The second video examines racism on the Internet.  Think about these two questions:
    1. What point is Andrew trying to make in his video "He'll never be a real Canadian"?  What attitudes about Canadians and Canadian identity are exhibited by the people who make racist comments about his youtube videos?

    Notes on Canadian Identity

    There are five key characteristics to Canadian Identity:

    Particular Emphasis on the Tri-Cultural Nature of Canada
    • Aboriginal (First Nations, Inuit, Metis) culture is (of course) the original culture of Canada
    • French culture developed through early colonization
    • English culture developed after the English took control of Canada after the War of 1812
    Canada Became a Country Without Having a Revolution
    • Canada is one of the few countries in the world that gained independence from a colonial power without a revolt or revolution.
    • As a result we have developed a country and culture that values peace and collaboration.
    "Peace, Order, and Good Government"
    • Related to point #2, Canada is founded on the ideas of "peace, order and good government".  
    • Part of this has developed because we adopted the British parliamentary system and (except in Quebec) the British legal system.
    • Very important to Canadians is the concept of the Cultural Mosaic as opposed to the Melting Pot of the United States.
    • The Cultural Mosaic means that each person and their culture is like a tile in the mosaic that makes up the picture of Canada.  Each person's culture is valued and supported.
    • The Cultural Mosaic can be seen in the writing of Canadians like Rohinton Mistry, Michael Ondaatje, Chief Dan George and Arthur Clarke.
    Geophysical Factors
    • Canadians have been strongly influenced by our land.  
    • It is a vast, cold, rugged land in which survival can be difficult, even today.
    • The importance of the land has molded our history and our arts and literature including works like Roughing it in the Bush by Susanna Moody, and writing by Margaret Atwood.  Artists like the Group of Seven and Emily Carr also reflect our landscape.
    All of these characteristics reflect an ideal Canada.  When all is "right with the world", what are the positive outcomes of these characteristics?  When things are not going so well, what are the negative outcomes of these characteristics?

    Can you tell which of these people are Canadian?  Some are and some aren't.  In fact, it is impossible to tell which ones are Canadian because there is no common "Canadian look".  Canadians come from Canada, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and the Pacific, South America, other North American countries, Central America, the Caribbean....  We speak Sencoten, English, French, Italian, Mandarin, Korean, Swahili, Cree, German, Japanese, Punjabi and many other languages.  So what makes us Canadian?     

    Russell Peters - How to become a Canadian Citizen

    In this video, Russell Peters tells the story of how his father is trying to become "Canadian".  He buys a barbeque, hamburgers and hot dogs and invites the neighbours over for a party.  Why would he think that this would make him more Canadian?  What does he believe is a Canadian?  Is this accurate?

    Canadian, Please

    This video is a celebration of Canada.  What are the positive things that the video makers are saying about Canada?