pp 16-17, 19-22
- Describe what Upper Canada looked like in the 1820s. There were few roads - just tracks through the bush. The forest was dense with giant oak, walnut, ash, hickory, and maple trees. It was a wilderness that was slow and difficult to clear. It was very quiet - the loudest sounds were that of the blacksmith, the animals, or the steam-powered saw.
- In European countries, social class was very important. Why did the social class structure break down amongst most of the population in early Canada? All people relied on their neighbours. They visited more and helped each other more. Even settlers who had been upper class or middle upper class had to do most of the heavy labour themselves. Cheap, good, and reliable help was almost impossible to find. This levelled the playing field a good deal when it came to social class.
- How were early immigrants ‘duped’ or fooled when it came to land? British and other European settlers were led to believe that there was a great quantity of good land available, however when they arrived in Canada they discovered that land speculators such as the members of the Family Compact had snatched up the best land in order to hold it to make a profit later.
- What were crown and clergy reserves? What kinds of problems did they cause? The crown and clergy reserves were tracts of land set aside for the government or the Anglican church that they could lease out to make money for either the government or the church. These pieces of land were scattered throughout the townships and were not cleared. These reserves blocked road development and caused a great deal of irritation to the farmers who had to wind their way around the reserves to get where they were going. Also, by holding some of the best land, the government and the church caused the price of land to rise.
- How did the British government make the land issue worse? The British government believed that aristocrats were the best people to rule Canada - in other words, the Family Compact. Britain was afraid that if the 'common' people were to rule, they would bring in 'republican' ideas from the United States. By giving the Family Compact power, it allowed land speculation to continue.
- What was the Canada Company? What did they purchase from the government and what were the terms? The Canada Company was a land company with Family Compact connections that bought 1 million hectares of land (more than 3 times the size of Vancouver Island) from the government for 295,000 pounds to be paid over 16 years. The Canada Company was also responsible for attracting settlers. This allowed land speculators like the Canada Company to double their investment in the space of 10 years.
Look at the map of “Viktoria”. You own a clothing store in the Baie Tower. You purchase all your inventory from the wholesaler Baa Baa Black Sheep Wool and Clothing Factory. The churches have put up fences around the clergy reserve and city hall has fenced the crown reserve. What problem do you have? Write a letter to the mayor about your problem. How do you feel about it? What solution do you suggest? Remember, be positive. You catch more flies with honey than with vinegar.